Considering this is an extensive topic, some facts might be overlooked. Commencing with the “caveman,” he is often depicted as plump and healthy. However, the opposite might be more accurate, as he was perpetually “on the go” as a hunter, with a club in hand, and a gatherer protecting his family amidst an anxious environment.

Life expectancy, probably due to poor nourishment, extended to around 25-26 years. He was often thought to have been killed by dinosaurs, but more likely by “the flood.”

Incredible as it is, humans today have evolved into strong and powerful athletes, yet obesity is the “plague” caused by our nonstop greed. Fat cells, named adipocytes, are only present in organisms with a backbone. There are three types of fat: white stores excess energy, brown generates heat in cold conditions, and beige is midway between the others.

The edible aspect is associated with cultural norms, emotional issues, floods, droughts, and wars, all playing a role in human livelihood. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), much obesity is found on the Pacific islands such as Samoa and the Cook Islands, normally viewed as paradise, due to agricultural deficiency and the importation of Western foods.

Inland countries suffering from wars, disease, and extreme poverty, such as Bangladesh, exhibit extreme losses in body weight. In contrast, obesity in Japan is less apparent as the population is physically active to a degree and walks much in their daily lives.

During the 19th century, plumpness equated to good health. However, later beauty experts began to severely criticize this, and a book was written stating that “Scrawny bony figures were intolerable to man and the gods!” Another strange perception arose that fat was merely water and that perspiration would rid the body of it. A certain Madam Ida Pfeiffer, during her travels in Africa and being of a lean nature, escaped death when the local savages considered her unsuitable for a good meal. There was also “chatter” about one who in society occupies twice the space, causing discomfort to his or her companions.

Interestingly, in our modern society, obesity is commonplace as a certain amount of gluttony arises from the fact that food has been modified to encourage the masses, hence plumping up the bank balances of the privileged few.

The prevalence of obesity is increasing across the world. Anorexia, on the other hand, is the opposite of obesity, with emotional issues often being involved. To understand this condition, normal food habits are typically accompanied by an intense fear of weight gain. A disturbing perception of normality over time leads to issues like muscle shrinkage, abnormal pumping of the heart, blood clotting, and possible death. Persons with these symptoms are petrified of gaining weight. With time, muscles shrink, the heart may not pump normally, and clotting could occur. Anorexia is classified as a disease and a problem for the medical profession, with verbal therapy and gradual nutritional increase providing assistance.

As for the obese, old methods of weight loss are losing ground. Modern methods such as “cool sculpting” freeze and disintegrate cell membranes to release fat. Ultrasound and non-invasive energy are currently popular methods, as are injections.

In conclusion, scientific methods have enhanced the beauty industry in many ways, but often our own savvy is accountable.